Thursday, October 20, 2011

maharashtra history

Maharashtra - Ancient Times

Early History:

The early history of Maharashtra dates back to the era of Ramayana which was known as “Dandak Aranya”. The language Maharastri, a prakrit corruption of Sanskrit was used during this period. But the recorded history starts from 2nd century BC when it became a part of the Magadha Empire. Due to the decline of the Mauryan Empire the state came under the rule of Satavahanas between 230 BC and 225 AD.Then the emperors of Vakatakas, Chalukyas and Yadavas ruled over the region till 12th century AD. The region came under the Mughal influence in the 13th century when Ala-ud-din Khilji, and later Muhammad bin Tughluq preferred the Deccan plateau. The Islamic reign continued till late 16th century.

Maratha period (1627-1680):

In the late 16th century regional Muslim powers like Nizamshahi, Adilshahi, and Qutubshahi established their prominence in the Deccan region. These empires were parts of Mughal Empire but were autonomous to an extent. Maloji Bhosle, grand father of Shivaji was a Sardar in the Nizamsahi Empire. Bahadur Nizam II offered him the prestige as “Raja” for his courage in the battle with Mughals. He was offered the estates of Pune and the fort of Chakan. This was the initial point of Maratha’s history.

In 1629, Shivaji’s father Shahaji disengaged himself from the service of the Nizamshahi. In 1635 Nizam’s Army attacked the region and Shahaji surrendered before them. In 1643, Shivaji, at the age of 16, took the vow to give freedom to his people. This was the start of his lifelong struggle against Mughals and other Muslim powers. By 1647, Shivaji had captured two forts and had the complete charge of Pune. In 1674, Shivaji was crowned as Chhatrapati, the traditional title of a Hindu Monarch at his capital Raigad. He died in 1680, at the age of 53 but left the Maratha state which continued to play an important role in the Indian history for next 100 years.

Peshwa Dynasty (1712-1818)

Bajirao Peshwa was the first ruler of the Peshwa dynasty. His desire was to extend the Maratha Empire to North India. During this period Raigad had regained its status as capital of Maratha Kingdom. The Peshwa dynasty ended to some extent in 1803 when British established their supremacy in the region.

Pre-Independence (British Raj)

Bajirao was against the British, and in November of 1817, he declared war against them. This battle is called “Kirkee Battle” as it was fought at Kirkee, a place in the east of Pune.The Peshwa fled and the power of the country passed from the Peshwas to the British by 1819. The rest of the nineteenth century witnessed a few minor uprisings in and around Pune, but the British dominated the region. In the early 20th century the whole nation was against the British Raj and Pune witnessed violence when the Chaphekar brothers killed a British police officer by the name of Mr. Rand. Mahatma Gandhi had started his Non-Violence movement against the British Force and people of the state participated in this movement to dismiss the British power from the Indian soil. Finally India got her freedom in 1947.

Post-Independence (Modern Maharashtra)

After independence the western Maharashtra and Gujarat were joined to a single state called Bombay. But in 1960 it was separated on the basis of their languages. The present Maharashtra state came into existence on 1st May, 1960 and Bombay was declared its capital. Later on in 1995, the official name has been changed to Mumbai.

No comments:

Post a Comment